Distraction Osteogenesis can be described roughly as bone expansion. This technique, which has been placed in the medical literature by the Orthopedics department, is known as the expansion method among the people. The technique used by the orthopedics department has been applied for facial bones since 1992. It is possible to extend the bones by 1 mm per day by placing a device called a distractor on the jaw bones.
Expansion operations can be performed easily for the lower jaw (mandible) and upper jaw (maxilla) bones within the facial bones. The indication of the jaw expansion operations can be briefly defined as developmental failure of the jaw bones.
There are congenital and traumatic causes of developmental insufficiency of the jaw bones, namely shortness. Congenital causes include Mandibular hypoplasia, Goldenhar Syndrome (Oculo-auriculo-vertebral Dysplasia), Pierre-Robin Syndrome, Nager Syndrome (Acrofacial Dysostosis) and Treacher-Collins Syndrome (Mandibulofacial Dysostosis). Shortness of the affected area of the jaw will occur before the completion of the development of the lower jaw, that is to say, as a result of failure to treat the traumatic jaw joint (condyle) fractures in childhood.
Cases with shortening of the jaw bones can be treated with Orthognathic Surgery in adults (after 18 years of age). However, in order to overcome the shortness problem at younger ages, it is necessary to perform jaw expansion surgeries. In my case group, patient ages ranged from 2 to 21 years.
Cases with shortening in the jaw bones should first be examined in detail. After the examination, direct radiographs, panoramic mandible (jaw) radiography and 3D computed tomography should be examined. It is useful to team up with orthodontists in order to achieve excellent results as a result of these surgeries. After detailed examination and examination of the films, the shape and quality of the surgery is decided.
Jaw expansion operations should be performed in a full-fledged hospital under general anesthesia. These surgeries can be performed inside or outside the mouth. In both methods, a device called a distractor is placed in the jawbone. The operation lasts between 1 hour and 3 hours according to the indication. 5-7 days after the operation, the expansion is started, and 1 mm of expansion is made daily. After the expansion, the instrument is held in place for 6 weeks.
After it is seen that ossification with jaw films, the instruments are removed and the process is terminated. Orthodontic treatment should be performed by orthodontists before and after the surgery in order to obtain excellent results.
Our patients should protect themselves especially after eating hard foods and from traumas that may occur after surgery. Carefully and meticulously dressing of instruments placed outside the mouth must be performed.